Navajo Crystal Handspun and 100% Vegital Dye Rug, unknown artist (#48)

Navajo Rug
59" x 29 1/2"

This wonderful rug from the Stephen Zolock collection is made with vegetal dyes and woven from hand-spun wool. Woven in the 1960s, this weaving is subtle and well made.



First Man burned a crystal for a fire. The crystal belonged to the male and was the symbol of the mind and of clear seeing. When First Man burned it, it was the mind's awakening. Pg. 2

The Dine': Origin Myths of the Navajo Indians, 1956; Aileen O'Bryan.

The lizard, specifically the Gila monster, is the god or medium of divination by sensation in some rites, as in the wind chant. Pg. 156

An Ethnologic Dictionary of the Navajo Language; 1910, The Franciscan Fathers.

The hand trembler passes his or her trembling hand over the patient's body as he or she says prayers to Gila Monster; the answer comes either through the interpretation of the motions of the diagnosticians's shaking hand, or as a direct revelation from the Gila Monster. Stargazing may involve sandpaintings or fetishes; the dried and powdered lenses from the eyes of night birds with keen sight may be applied to the eyelids of the stargazer, the patient, and those who could assist in seeing something. The stargazer and his or her helpers then go outside to say prayers and, with the use of a quartz crystal, interpret flashes of light or images for information about the cause of illness and the proper ceremonial and chanter for treatment. Listening is similar to stargazing but does not use sandpainting or fetishes, which may be used in stargazing. The dried and powdered eardrum of a badger may be placed in each ear; the listener then leaves the hogan to say prayers and then to interpret the cause of illness from something heard, such as the rattling of a rattlesnake or the roar of thunder. There is considerable variation in each of these techniques. Pgs. 39-40

Stargazing, deest'ii, is used to determine the etiology of illness, the source of misfortune, or the location of missing objects. The patient may contact a stargazer, deest'ii'ii'lini, before he hires the chanter to perform a ceremonial. There are several kinds of diagnosticians, or diviners, among the Navajo: hand tremblers, listeners, and stargazers. All of these, in contrast to chanters, acquire power through personal contact with the supernatural and perform their rituals in a trance state. Thus, the stargazer is technically a shaman, while the chanter is technically a priest, in the sense of having learned standardized ritual through apprenticeship to an older chanter. Because shamanism, by its very nature, is a far more individualistic enterprise than chanting, the following descriptions of stargazing ritual are far from standardized. In some cases, the stargazer gazes through a crystal at a star of the first magnitude (deest'ii `ashleeh means "to do stargazing"). The colors that are refracted through the prism indicate the answers to the questions posed by the diagnostician, who then relays this information to the patient. The specific information regarding causal factors indicates not only the cause of the illness and thus which particular chant needs to be performed but also what sandpaintings, branches, and subrituals need to be performed for the restoration of the patient of a state of health and harmony. Matthews, on of the first ethnographers of the Navajo, reported only that the patient and his friends determined "what particular rites are best suited to cure the malady." More was known about diagnosis when the Franciscan Fathers described the various forms of divination and mentioned "divination by sight (dest'i) . . . . or star reading (sotsoji)." Morgan was the first to stress the distinction between chanters (whom Morgan refers to as "shamans"), who know the myths behind the ceremonials and are responsible for their performance, and diagnosticians, who reveal the cause and prescribe the cure of illness.

A man is sick. A stargazer is called in. He comes into the hogan. The patient is there. Others are there. He talks to the patient and others. They discuss the illness. The fire is put out. The stargazer chants, then he says, "Everyone must close his eyes. No one must move or speak. Everyone must concentrate on the illness and try to see something." The stargazer takes a man from the hogan, and walks away some distance. He performs movements with his body. Any horses or sheep are frightened away. When there is no noise, the stargazer places a crystal or stone on his hand. He chants. He prays to the Gila monster. He does not pray to a lizard, but a lizard beyond the lizards, a larger one. Then the stargazer holds out his arm and hand in line with the moon or some star, and gazes unwinking at the crystal. Soon he sees something. He closes his hand upon what he has seen in the crystal. Also there may seem to be a line of light which is "lightning" from the star to the crystal or to the ground around him so that the ground appears light. The stargazer sees the hogan and the sick man, even though his back is turned to it. . . . . . He sees a man, or a bear, or a coyote, or perhaps the head of a coyote, or perhaps the bear is biting the patient. Then he goes back to the hogan. The fire is lighted. He asks what the others have seen. This is talked about. He tells what he has seen . . . . . If the illness is serious the stargazer will prescribe a ceremony and the shaman who can give it.

Wyman provided a description of events inside and outside the hogan during one stargazing ritual. He first described the procedure inside the hogan.

In the complete ritual the diagnostician first makes a sandpainting in the dwelling . . . about two feet in diameter. It represents a white star with four points toward the cardinal directions. Between the points of the star are four heaps of sand representing mountains, the southeast mountain being white, the southwest blue, the northwest yellow, and the northeast black. Around the whole, with an opening to the east, is a zig-zag line representing lightning. Then the diagnostician makes ready the dried and powdered lenses from the eyes of the five nightbirds with keen sight who acted as lookouts in the legend of how stargazing was first made known to the people. He dips the tip of his finger in this material and then draws it along his lower eyelids. It is similarly applied to the patient, to the one man who will go out with the stargazer to assist him, and to anyone else present who is "smart" and may be able to assist by seeing something. The eyes of the five birds mentioned are the main ones, but eyes of other birds may be used if available. Then the fire is covered and from now on the people who remain inside do not move or make any noise, but they concentrate and try to see something in addition to that which is seen by the diagnostician, sometimes gazing at a star through the smokehole. . . (The stargazer and another person then leave the hogan to do the actual stargazing.) Outside he (the stargazer) prays the star-prayer (so'dizin) to the star-spirit, asking the star to show him the cause of the sickness. Then he begins to sing star-songs (hotso' biyiin) and while singing gazes fixedly at a star of at the light of a star reflected in a "glass rock" or quartz crystal which he holds in his hand. Soon, it was said, the star begins to "throw out a string of light and at the end of this the star-gazer sees the cause of sickness of the patient, like a motion picture." If these strings of light are white or yellow the patient will recover; if red, the illness is serious or dangerous. If the white light falls on the house and makes it as light as day around it, the patient will get well. If the house is seen burning or in darkness he will die. If a certain medicine man is the proper one to cure the sickness the star will throw a flash of light in the direction of his home, or on his body if he is present. Places faraway may be see. After the diagnostician has obtained enough information is this way he returns to the house and tells what he has seen. If anyone else has seen anything, his experience is also considered.

Stargazer A indicated that while the individual must have an aptitude for diagnosis, the power of diagnosis resides in the crystal itself. When asked if he had to have an overview of all the ceremonies in order to prescribe the appropriate one for the patient, Stargazer A responded, "The crystal tells me if the patient needs a specific ceremony or a doctor or if I can help the patient myself with herbs. The power is in the crystal." Haile illustrated the power of rock crystal in locating missing children:
Now this Rock Crystal Talking God kept himself well posted on events by means of his dreams. In addition he would place twelve layers of rock crystal one above the other (like a magnifying glass). By sighting through them (like a telescope) he kept himself posted at the east, south, west, and the north. . . . . His two children were occupied in playing games . . . (Later) the children were missed. . . . . Without a delay he looked . . . with his twelve rock crystal eyepiece . . . toward the west he realized that here they could be found. . . . . Through an eyepiece of twelve rock crystals nothing is hidden.

Wyman's footnote to this passage emphasized that this powerful crystal differentiates this Talking God from other Talking Gods: "Unlike others . . . he has his rock crystal eyepiece which enables him to detect everything, even to the ends of the earth and sky, of mountains and water." Reichard referred to the rock crystal held by stargazers as a "symbol of illumination." Remington described how the stargazer puts water or mucus from birds with the best eyesight on his lower eyelids and on those of the patient and the one who goes outside the hogan to help in stargazing. The stargazer prays and sings to the star-spirit while outside. Remington explained, "He gazes at the star, the star group, or the moon and holds the crystal out to reflect the light. A light beam comes down and lights up the crystal. The stargazer is illuminated, the hogan is illuminated, and the stargazer can see far away or back to the hogan, without looking." Pg. 143-148

Hand Tremblingway is used for any illness caused by practicing or overpracticing hand trembling divination or stargazing, or otherwise becoming infected with overdoing of divination. Such illness may be manifested as tuberculosis, nervousness, mental disease, paralysis of the arms (from overdoing Hand Tremblingway), or impaired vision (from overdoing stargazing). The Paintings of Hand Tremblingway are made only on buckskin. Pgs. 151,152

Earth is my Mother, Sky is my Father: Space, Time, and Astronomy in Navajo Sandpainting; 1992, Trudy Griffen-Pierce.

diagnosis is done by "listening," "stargazing," or "hand trembling." Listeners and stargazers are rare, are always men, and have learned the procedures. By far the most common method of diagnosis is hand trembling, which is practiced by both men and women although, in our experience, women outnumber men as hand tremblers. Hand trembling is said to be an unsought gift signaled by the shaking of the right arm. The person so chosen is thought to be possessed by the spirit of the supernatural Gila Monster. A ceremony must then be performed to control the involuntary shaking so that it does not become a disease and, at the same time, to introduce the individual to the status of diagnostician. The hand trembler is a shaman because he is thought to be possessed while in a trance, although this method of diagnosis and the Hand-Tremblingway ceremony were borrowed after 1860 from the Apaches. All diagnosticians, however, are said to be in a trance state while practicing their art, and the origin of the stargazing rite mentions that it was caused by Coyote possession. Pgs. 30 31

Ndishniih, to tremble or move the hand about (for the purpose of diagnosing), does not connote a state of wildness or excess despite the fact that the trembling is always thought to be involuntary, may vary from a fine tremor of the hand to rather violent motions of the arm, and can become uncontrollable. It is only used to refer to the behavior displayed by diagnosticians and caused by possession by Gila Monster. Pg. 41

Hand Trembling, Frenzy Witchcraft, and Moth Madness, A Study of Navajo Seizure Disorders; 1987, Jerrold E. Levy, Raymond Neutra, Dennis Parker.


After the medicine woman told the people about the prayersticks she told them that there was a place in the underworld where two rivers crossed. It was called ni tqin'kae tsosi, fine fiber cotton (Indian hemp). There were two persons who brought the seed of that plant, they were spiders. They said that the people were to use the plant instead of skins for their clothing. So this seed was planted in the earth. When the seeds were planted, the plant ripe, and the cotton gathered, the people shaped a little wheel, 3 or 4 inches in diameter, and they put a slender stick through it. This was used in the spinning of cotton. When they began spinning they pushed away from the body toward the knee. Then the chief medicine woman said: "You must spin towards your person, as you wish to have the beautiful goods come to you; do not spin away from you." For it was in their minds to make cloth which they could trade for shell and turquoise beads and she knew their thoughts. She said :"You must spin towards you, or the beautiful goods will depart from you." There were two names given to the spindle, yudi yilt ya'hote, meaning, turning or shooting around with the beautiful goods. This the Spider Man suggested; but his wife said: "It shall be called by another name, ntl is yilt ya'hote, turning with the mixed chips." After they had spun the thread they rolled it into good-sized balls. They brought straight poles and laid them down; one down, one opposite. They tied two other poles at the ends, making a rectangular frame. They rolled or wound the thread on two of the poles as the sun travels, east to west, over and under the poles. The Spider Man said that the ball of thread should be called, yudi yilt nasmas agha, rolling with the beautiful goods. His wife said: "No, it shall be called ntsli yilt nasmas agha, rolling with the mixed chips." After the loom was finished the cross poles were erected and other poles placed on the ground to hold the loom frame solidly, and the loom was stretched and lifted into place. Then the Spider Man said: "It will be called yoteblitz nes thon, looping with the beautiful goods." His wife said: "From hence forth it shall be called nil tliz biltz nes thon, looping with mixed chips." Then they used a narrow stick about two and a half feet long, and they wound the yarn or thread over it, and where there is no design they ran it along. That was given the same name as the ball of thread. The Spider Man held that it should have the same name as the ball; but his wife said: "No, it shall be called nil tliz nasmas agha." Then they used the wide flat stick for tapping down the thread. The Spider Man said: "It shall be called nil tliz na'ygolte" ; but his wife said: "It shall be called nil tliz na'ygolte, twining with the mixed chips". When they got this far with the weaving, the threads of the warp mixed together and were too near or too far apart. So another kind of stick was used. It had long, narrow teeth. It was also used for the purpose of tapping down the thread. The Spider Man said: "It shall be called yote yo'golte, hoeing with the beautiful goods." His wife said: "It shall be called nil iltz yo'golte." The Spider Man said: "Now you know all that I have named for you. It is yours to work with and to use following your own wishes. But from now on when a baby girl is born to your tribe you shall go and find a spider web which is woven at the mouth of some hole; you must take it and rub it on the baby's hand and arm. Thus, when she grows up she will weave, and her fingers and arms will not tire form the weaving." To this day that is done to all baby girls. The weaving progressed, and they made all kinds of articles. They used cotton and yucca fiber and Indian hemp. These were the thread. They raised turkeys, and they used the feathers for feather blankets. They ate the turkey flesh for their meat. They killed rabbits and cut the fur into strips, and they made fur blankets. They wove different kinds of grass into mats for their floors, and also, to hang in front of the openings of their houses. There were many kinds of weaving. The people lived peacefully and were happy in working out designs in the new art. They raised great quantities of corn. All this made them grow in number; they became a very strong people and their past troubles were forgotten; but this was not to last. Pg. 37, 38

The Dine': Origin Myths of the Navajo Indians; 1956, Aileen O'Bryan.

Weaving has been carried to a high degree of perfection by the Navaho. The art as it exists among them today is not an invention of their own, as nothing similar is found among any other tribe of the Athapascan stock. It is pretty safe to say that the Navaho learned the art of weaving from the Pueblos. Their own legends, however, account for it in their own way. The hanelnaeheke hani', or moving upward chant legend, records that the art of weaving was taught by the Spider Man and Spider Woman in the following manner. "The Spider Man drew some cotton (ndaka') from his side and instructed the Navaho to make a loom. The cotton-warp was made of spider-web (nashjei bitlol). The upper cross-pole was called yabitlol (sky or upper cord), the lower cross-pole ni'bitlol (earth or lower cord). The warp-sticks were made of shabitlol (sun rays), the upper strings, fastening the warp to the pole, of atsinltlish (lightning), the lower strings of shabitlajilchi (sun halo), the heald was a tsaghadindini isenil (rock crystal heald), the cord-heald stick was made of atsolaghal (sheet lightning), and was secured to the warp strands by means of nltsatlol billdestlo' (rain ray cords)." "The batten-stick was also made of shabitlajilchi (sun halo), while the beidzoi (comb) was of yolgai (white shell). Four spindles or distaffs were added to this, the disks of which were of cannel-coal, turquoise, abalone and white bead, respectively, and the spindle-sticks of atsinltlish (zigzag lightning), hajilgish (flash lightning), atsolaghal (sheet lightning), and nltsatlol (rain ray), respectively." "The dark, blue, yellow and white winds quickened the spindles (beedizi) according to their color, and enabled them to travel around the world."

Presumably, this legend accounts for the now vanishing tradition that weaving should be done with proper moderation. Overdone weaving (akeitlo) is ameliorated by a sacrifice offered to the spindle (beedizi). Its prayerstick (bik'et'an) consists of yucca, precious stones, bird and turkey feathers, tassels of grass (tlo'zol) and pollen, and forms part of the blessing rite (hozhoji). The hach'eyatqei, or ch'aeyatqei (prayer to the gods), is recited with the sacrifice. The custom withholding maidens from weaving before marriage, which was formerly observed, is also explained by the fear of overdoing weaving. Little or no attention, however, is paid to this tradition today. Pgs. 221, 223

For references to steps in weaving, coloring and dyeing of wool, setting up of loom, weaving, Implements, use of loom, designs and knitting refer to below Pgs. 223-256

An Ethnologic Dictionary of the Navaho Language; 1910, The Franciscan Fathers.

Take, for instance, the famous art of Navajo weaving. If you ask a member of the tribe today when weaving was learned, she - for Navajo weavers are women - will tell you that they were taught by Spider Woman, "in the beginning." Yet the Navajo weaving technique, point for point, exactly duplicates that of the Pueblos, who have been weaving since A.D. 600. It is a complicated art, and Navajo girls today need years to learn it from a female relative, practicing every day. It is difficult to believe that the Navajos had worked out the loom, the spindle, and all the other equipment before this era of "learning by marriage." A blanket got in trade, a loom glimpsed on a visit to some pueblo would never have given them enough information. Then there is the problem of sex etiquette, for most Pueblo weavers today are men. Indian proprieties would surely forbid a Navajo woman to receive daily instruction from a strange man. But if she married him! It is possible to imagine the skilled weaver working in a Navajo home, trying to teach his sons who were still wedded to the life of hunting and fighting and, finally, imparting the art to his daughters. That this did not happen too early in Navajo history can be gathered from the fact that all known specimens of Navajo weaving are in wool. Therefore they were made after the Spaniards had come and after the Navajos had sheep. And sheep did not come to the Navajos in any quantity until after the Pueblo revolt. Pgs. 46-47

The Navajos; 1956, Ruth M. Underhill.

Even such everyday tasks as weaving must be done only in moderation. Many women will not weave more than about two hours at a stretch; in the old days unmarried girls were not allowed to weave for fear they would overdo, and there is a folk rite for curing the results of excess in this activity. Closely related is the fear of completely finishing anything: as a "spirit outlet," the weaver leaves a small slit between the threads. Pgs. 225-226

The Navaho; 1946, Clyde Kluckhohn and Dorothea Leighton.

The Navajos believe in the Greek maxim "Nothing to excess " believing that overdoing a thing brings bad luck as an offense to the spirits. For the same reason nothing must be too perfect. A rug or basket design with a solid border must have a break in it or flaw to let the spirit of the maker, who has spent so much time and energy, escape. It is natural that things which bring one a livelihood should also have some restrictions. Many commercially minded weavers and other craftsmen have begun to ignore the taboos of their trades as being too restrictive. The large number of taboos relating to pottery making have been given credit for the decline of that craft, and none are listed here.


Don 't hit anyone with weaving tools - crack the tools.

They will be paralyzed in the future.


Don't spank your children with weaving tools.

They'll get sick.


Don't have a weaving comb with six points.

Your baby might have six fingers.


Don't go between the poles of the loom when a woman is weaving.

You won't grow - cause evil - won't get much for the rug.


Don't have the loom of the weaving stand too long.

It will tire and hurt you.


Don't eat or drink while you prepare the loom for the rug.

You'll get poor - won't get much for the rug.


Don't eat while you are weaving.

It will go slow - won't be any good.


Don't weave a Yei figure with one eye smaller or one leg shorter.

It will affect you that way in later life - affect your baby.


Don't leave a Yei figure in a rug unfinished.

The Yeis will get angry - bring bad luck.


This is interesting as a compromise taboo. Yeis are Holy People and as such are supposed to be represented only in the sandpaintings which are used and destroyed before sundown but never done in any permanent form. The famous hermaphroditic medicine man Hosteen Clah was one of the first to weave rug versions of the sandpaintings. In the Shiprock area Yei rugs and other pictorial tapestries became increasingly popular after WWII.


Don't be stubborn while weaving a rug.

It won't be worth much.


Don't throw weaving tools.

You 'II never finish the weaving.


Don't burn weaving tools.

The "Yeis" will get angry - bad luck.


Don't weave if you don't know a weaving song.

It won't be any good.


Don't leave tools in the loom when they are not in use.

You won't finish right away.


Don't weave when it is raining.

It will cause the loom to fall.


Don't stand by the loom when it is raining.

Lightning will strike you.


Don't pass things through the loom.

Anything you pass through will be lost -food, yarn, beads.


Don't bump into or move around a loom you are preparing for a rug.

It will be crooked - you won't be able to get it straight.


Don't leave carded wool too long.

When you start weaving it won't like it and you'll have trouble.


Don't make fun of your weaving.

It will get worse - you'll be poor.


Don't leave a loom outside.

It will collect bad things.


Don't cut off a loom once it is made.

You will have a short life.


Don't steal a rug - wool - weaving tools.

You'll never be lucky - always have bad luck.


Don't weave immoral things in a rug.

You'll be sterile.


Don't weave any taboo animal into a rug.

You will have all the bad luck associated with that animal.


Don 't hang rugs out in the sun.

The sun will take it as an insult.


Don't weave at all (boys).

It will affect the reproductive organs.


Don't weave on the north side of the hogan.

The rug won't be worth anything.


Don't drag your rugs on the ground.

Causes poverty.


Don't leave an unfinished rug outside at night.

It might be witched - you won't be able to finish it or sell it.


Don't put a rug over your horse's face.

It will go blind.


Pgs. 179-183

Navajo Taboos; 1991, Ernie Bulow.

The principal occupation of the present-day Navajo is raising sheep, goats, and a few cattle. And yet four hundred years ago he had seen no sheep or horses. Under the treaty of 1886, each Navajo was given two sheep - about twelve thousand sheep altogether, since not more than sic thousand Navajos survived Bosque Redondo. Now a million sheep graze on the Navajo land. Since the introduction of sheep to this country by Coronado's men, Navajo women have been weaving rugs on crude hand looms - an art which was not entirely new to them, since they already wove with yucca and other vegetable fibers. Pg. 167

Navajos, Gods, Tom-toms; By S.H. Babington, 1950.

There is a saying that a rug is not good unless a weaver puts her "soul" in it. Like Changing Woman, the Holy Person whom the Navajo woman personifies, the weaver is an eternal creator who weaves both an individual product of her own mind and a more universal product from the mind of the tribe. Pgs. 10-11

Sitting on the Blue-Eyed Bear, Navajo Myths and Legends; 1975, Gerald Hausman.