Ambush, a shelter formed by two trees or shrubs whose branches intermingle, is a setting repeatedly occurring in myth, giving the explanation for various ritualistic properties-emetic frames, hoops, pokers, prayersticks, wood samples. A hero, hoping to shoot a mountain sheep or other animal he did not recognize as a god, lay behind the 'ambush trees,' but when the animal appeared, was numb until it had passed. The animal deity, revealing himself, taught the hero ceremonial lore.
In the were-coyote episodes, the intertwined trees become a shelter for the forlorn hero, bewitched into a coyote.
Hoops of the Night Chant are made of the ambush woods, which appear again in the pit-baking, associated with the 'wood samples' of the sweat-emetic (Matthews 1902, pp.96, 162, 259; Sapir-Hoijer, pp. 155, 235; Haile l943a, p.57; Reichard, Shooting Chant Evil ms.).
Armor of various kinds is mentioned, the most common being flint, protection even against lightning.
Gila Monster of the Flint Chant had flint armor of the same colors as The Twins and their duplicates-black, blue, yellow, pink. Cattail armor was made for Rainboy by the gods so that he could withstand Frog's weapons. The armor of the Thunder People was of different layers, the innermost of cattail fibers, on top of it layers of colored flint.
Navaho warriors probably wore rawhide armor. Cicada wore it as a protection from Turtle's lightning and arrows.
Turtleshell armor was offered to and refused by First Man in the lower worlds; it was accepted by Horned Toad, who had flint armor also. Turtleshell, flint, and scales are doubtless associated (Reichard 1939, PI. XVII-XIX; 1944d, pp. 23, 31, 38, 39; Haile 1938b, p. 155; 1943a, p. 133; Newcomb Reichard, PI. XV-XVII; Stephen 1930, pp. 91-3).
Ax (tse nil), which destroyed anyone who took hold of it, other than the owner, was possessed by Frog, Gambler, and Old Age. It seems that this magic ax was changed into Monster Slayer's club. The references may point to a connection between Frog (Toad), Gambler, Old Age, and The Twins' club (Reichard 1944d, p. 27; Haile 1938b, p. 153; Goddard, p.146; Sapir-Hoijer, p. 129).
Blowing is a ritualistic act that has various results. Blowing increases size or quantity. Blowing on the large reed made it grow until it reached the sky. The world was stretched by blowing to keep the sun from burning the people. An entrance too small was enlarged by blowing; as soon as those allowed had entered, it reassumed its usual small size. Similarly, rooms too small for those entering were enlarged by blowing. A small rainbow was enlarged when Talking God blew on it. When Gambler came home, he put four ears of corn into empty bins, and blew on them; all the bins filled up.
Blowing causes motion, speed, and growth, and may also make a thing steady or permanent. Perhaps the steadying effect must be achieved by blowing chewed herbs: The rainbow on which the Stricken Twins traveled moved when blown on by Talking God. Evil influences, gathered under the reversed basket (drum) by the beating, were caused to move out of the smokehole by blowing after the basket was turned upright. Spider Woman, by blowing, caused the 'invincible man' to move into and remain in The Twins' bodies. First Man chewed an herb and blew it four times on the sun in his map of the world, sending it to the sky, which then began to move. By blowing, the entrance to the lower worlds was closed.
Blowing makes skins fit persons for whom they were not designed, sometimes permanently, sometimes temporarily. Blowing causes transformation, closely related to fitting and permanence: Blowing caused a monster's blood to congeal. Blowing by be'yotcidi changed water animals into rocks. Blowing caused the stars to move from the plan made on the earth to their permanent place in the sky. Pluck of game hung in a tree was shot; the arrow was pulled through it. When the arrangement was blown upon, it turned into game.
Blowing may bring or dissipate a storm: Changing Woman, by spitting hail through hoops, throwing flints, and blowing, caused all to disappear into the sky and by this means prevented a storm. When Wind blew mud balls, a great hail storm arose. When there was a bad storm with terrific lightning, the hero of the Night Chant sang his Thunder songs and blew in the four directions, whereupon the storm passed.
The following ritual was performed if a hailstorm threatened: A man put into his mouth some sacred clay, salt, and the first hailstones that hit the field. He then blew the mixture to the four directions and the hail was expected to turn to rain (Pollen ball, Con. B; Stevenson, p. 276; Matthews 1887, pp. 391, 399, 400, 403, 409; 1897, pp. 129, 175, 232, 109n; 1902, pp. 186, 206, 246, 263; Wheelwright 1942, pp. 41, 43, 54, 79, 80, 86; Sapir-Hoijer, p. 43; Goddard, pp. 130, 133, 136, 138, 161; Haile 1938b, pp. 89, 117; Stephen 1930, p. 101; Reichard 1944d, p. 135; Hill 1938, p. 61).
Club (xal) was one of Sun's gifts to The Twins. It may be a manifestation of the 'killing ax,' and is an item of some bundles. Frequently depicted in the paintings of the flint-armored boys, it serves many purposes besides clubbing.
It was stuck between the 'closing rocks' and, along with elkhorn, now a property of the War Ceremony, it overcame them. Big Bear was rendered harmless when the club was wedged in his mouth.
By hitting with it Monster Slayer overcame the Big Gray Gods (insects) and made Traveling Rock useful to man (Haile 1938b, pp. 125, 127, 131, 137; Reichard 1939, PI. X, XVII-XIX; Newcomb-Reichard, p. 48, PI. XV-XVII).
Covers, blankets serving also as curtains, are indispensable to the Navaho.
Covers of the Skies were placed over and under Changing Woman and The Twins when they were babies. The Twins were hidden in similar covers to protect them from their father's wrath.
When heroes wandered alone they were often protected at night by a cover furnished by a deity.
Various covers-of Darkness, Dark Water, and dark, blue, yellow, and white clouds-were laid down for Rainboy's rites by their respective owners.
After the Fire Dance, Rainboy was left alone for four nights. The first night a large dark owl covered him with her wing. The next night White-nosed Duck covered him with the blanket of Old Age. The third night White Owl covered him, and the fourth night Rat Woman laid a squirrel skin over him.
Although the Stricken Twins seemed the most miserable of creatures, Talking God, their father, laid a cover of Darkness over them at night.
The curtains of the sweathouse and hogan doors, no matter how tattered or shabby they may appear, stand for deific qualities; they must be of a particular number and hung in a required order for each ceremony.
During the creation people were sent to Owl for a sweat-house curtain. He let them choose from those he had-white, blue, yellow, black, and flashing-and they chose the flashing one (Haile 1938b, p. 101; Reichard 1944d, pp. 23, 135, 137; Matthews 1902, pp. 216, 246; Wheelwright 1942, pp. 42, 57).
Danger line, line of protection ('ate' a' xo'dzoh) may prove to be one of the most important concepts in the understanding of American Indian war patterns. Dr. Parsons suggests in a brilliant deduction that the reason for Estevan's death was his daring to 'cross the line' which until then had doubtless been sacrosanct, for it is to be inferred that other Indians, who believed as the Zuni did, felt the same way and did not cross.
The idea is corroborated for the Navaho by Hill's explicit account of the war procedure and by other references. The line was composed of a zigzag and a flash lightning, a sunray and rainbow, designs that would prevent the enemy from overtaking the war party. The statement may even mean that the line would prevent the enemy from crossing into Navaho territory. An understanding of this idea makes clear the belief that evils dare not cross the pokers, since we know that the pokers stand not only for snakes but also for the supernatural conveyances.
Other elements that designate the line are meal sprinkling, flints, yucca, and mountains. On the other hand, pollen and meal sprinkling have blessing value in that they make the road safe for the traveler as long as he stays on the right side. The interpretation discloses the fundamental reasons for the elaborate preparations and procedure of hunting, war, and trading expeditions, which by their very nature cause men to cross the line.
Literary and ritualistic references confirm the interpretation: The hoops of the Big Star Chant, called so'ba's, 'star hoops,' are believed to furnish transportation, but when laid down one upon the other they are called 'atc a' xo'dzoh, 'obstructing lines or marks'; a zigzag and a flash lightning are crossed upon the hoops. In the flat position they do not lose their travel power, but rather restrict territory to a manageable space, a zone of safety, while the riders enter into otherwise dangerous country.
Evil spirits cannot cross the mountains or flints of the Hand Trembling Chant, which represent the trail of life.
Blood formed the line after the killing of Big Monster and Changing-bear-maiden.
The danger line explains the ritualistic facing in two directions, toward and away from the enemy country, in the War
Ceremony. The enemy was 'talked out 'in prayer and a line was drawn against him in the valley (*Father Berard's translation. 'for' instead of 'against' him, is due to failure to distinguish the context of the bipolar post-positions (cp. Reichard 1944d, p. ix).
The following illustrate the zone rather than the line of protection:
The singer of the Rain Ceremony drew a line in his mind around the territory where he wanted rain.
During the Rain Ceremony no one should step over the poker (actual, non-ritualistic) that lay by the fire. Holy People followed those who came into the house. If an Earth Person stepped over the poker, he blocked the passage to the Holy People. In other words, passing the poker would lead them into the fire. Furthermore, the poker should not at this time have its point toward the fire (its normal position). Hill says the reason is that there is too much chance of stepping over it.
If a poker lay in a vertical position east of the fire, the chances of stepping over it were as great no matter which way it was pointed. Another explanation is that the poker ordinarily should point toward the fire so that evils entering the door be attracted toward the fire, but at the time of the Rain Ceremony only good should enter and nothing should be done to cause it to detour (Parsons 1939, p. 363; Hill 1936, p. 16; 1938, pp. 75, 88; Kluckhohn-Wyman, p. 177; Matthews 1897, pp. 103, 116; Reichard, Endurance Chant ms.; Haile 1938b, pp. 45-6, 111, 157, 254, 87n).
Decoy fire, a plot motivation of various mythical episodes, seems to set up a relationship between sex, incest, and sorcery. Someone sees a beckoning fire at a great distance. He sets up a forked stick as an indicator so he can find the place in the daytime; his device leads to the discovery of new people, sometimes the household group of a sorcerer who has taken his daughter as a wife. The hero frees the daughter from her incestuous union and overcomes the sorcerer, sometimes obtaining the gift of rare game.
A fire decoy led Monster Slayer to the homes of the people who were neither good nor bad but in between (Ch. 5; Matthews 1897, pp. 138, 174; Newcomb 1940b, p. 55; Goddard, p. 127; Sapir-Hoijer, pp. 29ff.; Wheelwright 1942, p. 98).
entices a man to new acquaintance and often to mating. She is attractive; she
has magic power from which only the gods can save the hero. Such women were
Changing-bear-maiden, Winter Thunder's wife, the daughter and wife of Deer Owner,
the pueblo Corn Maiden seducers of Monster Slayer (Reichard, Endurance Chant
ms.; 1944d, pp. 5ff.; Haile 1943a, p. 56; Matthews 1897, pp. 174ff.; Newcomb
1940b, pp. 55ff.).
is to be avoided in all activities. The happy medium is to be sought, so that
even in ritual there are curbs. One often gets the impression that it is impossible
for the Navaho to have enough rain, yet moderation is required even in the performance
of the Rain Ceremony. The prayerstick should be deposited on a pile of drift
rubbish at least four fingerwidths but never more than eighteen inches high.
The size of the drift pile regulates the amount of rain to be expected; too
much would be courting bad luck.
has been stressed as an indispensable part of ritual. In some acts or rites
power is concentrated in the behavior of the chanter, assistants, and patient;
in others, everyone present must participate-in the sweat-emetic, ashes blowing,
prayer with pollen, holding sacred objects during prayer, and application of
yucca suds in the Rain Ceremony (if there is no patient). Proper audience participation
helps the patient and the entire tribe; even attendance at a ceremony is a part
of the sustaining effort (Introduction; Hill 1938, p. 81).
Navaho religion, dogma, ritual, and practice must be looked at as an aggregate of diverse ideas, including every possible phase of nature, deity, and supernatural power, of human perception, behavior, emotion, culture, and imagination formulated in myth.
From this congeries, which actually takes all time, space, existence, and sentience for its province, certain elements have been chosen for co-ordinating a single system or order. The selected items may be in one case material, perceptual, and emotional; in another, perceptual or natural only; but whatever they are, they comprise an integrated whole.
All things in the universe, materialistic and abstract, are viewed in terms of their effect on man. If he knows about them and can control them, they are good; if not, they are evil. Some things under only partial control are good when susceptible to that control; otherwise they are bad. Therefore, the fundamental subdivisions - good and evil - which are not; absolute, overlap.
The good in all things must be attracted; hence ceremonial control invokes good in Blessing rites or 'chants-according-to-holiness.'
The evil remaining outside ritualistic control must be driven off; hence the 'evil- chasing ceremonies' with emphasis on exorcism, but from which attraction of good is by no means absent.
Each ceremony is a complex, made up of many kinds of symbols, and is inclusive rather than exclusive, since there is no predictable limit to the items that may be selected.
Each subdivision of a ceremony, which I term 'branch' or 'phase,' is characterized by features that from out viewpoint are fortuitous and therefore not susceptible to scientific systematization.
Rites, which are further subdivisions of ceremony, may refer to a series of mythological events or dramatize a single episode.
Ritualistic acts are the ultimate elements of which the larger divisions are composed. Their significance may sometimes be ascertained, but should not be expected to be the same whenever the act is performed. Each symbol has numerous interpretations, but the more we learn about it, the clearer it becomes that differences are not so much conflicting as associational and therefore, in the Navaho view, harmonious.