Witchcraft

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Origin: First Man and First Woman came up through the earth. Water came up through the earth. Water came up right behind them. First Man says, "We forgot something underneath." First Woman says, "What is it, my husband?" "It is medicine." (He didn't say ?ant'i, because there were some more people with these two people. So he just called it `medicine.') "We left it down there." "Well we shouldn't do that," says the woman. They cannot stay without it. They have to make it some way so that it can be brought up by something. They told Big Fly, "How can we get that thing?" Big Fly says, "Get the bird that has the long bill, the bird called `diving heron.' He can go back down there." They told that bird to get that thing. "Go in the water and look for that thing and bring it up." They sent that bird down there and pretty soon he brought this thing up. The man and his wife was felling bad about it. After it was brought up, they feel good again. First Man says, "When you have this thing, man will get rich easy. This thing is sheep, horses. All the same as having a lot of hard goods, including different kinds of shell." When it was brought up, there is the place where it starts. People kept on with it and we're still hearing about it yet.  After First Man and First Woman had come out of the Big Cave and built the first sweathouse, Witchcraft Woman gave all the people some ?ant'i. She gave some to the rattlesnake too, and he didn't have any place to put it so he ate it. That is why you will die if a rattlesnake bites you. Witchery started out under the ground. First Man, First Woman and Coyote - these three started it. After everybody got above ground First Woman gave it out. Snake wanted some too, but his mouth was the only place he could put it. And so his bite kills you. Pg. 133

It is dangerous to talk about Woman Chief. She is the same as the boss of all the witches.
Woman speaker ("chief") is often referred to in discussions of witchcraft. In the eleventh world, before the emergence, she was a victim of the Witchery of First Man. She was the first person to die and became the first ghost, and, as Father Berard says, "Because she was a `chief' she is the chief of ghosts to whom mortals must return in time." It seems, however, misleading to refer to her, as does Matthews, as "the goddess of witchcraft." Nor have I obtained comfirmation of the view that the saliva, hair or whatever is used in Sorcery is thought of as "a lost element . . . in possession of the goddess of witchcraft in the lower world." The following excerpt I have not included in the text of the appendix because its significance, if any, is obscure to me:
"Woman speaker she was working with the boss man people. We don't have that any more. That might be one reason why people at this time don't listen very well to their bosses. Woman speaker was with the witch people. People used to say way back, `you must know someting before you be boss over the people.' What they meaning is that know some kind of a big pray or witch that will protect himself with that much so people won't hurt him. If he didn't know anything and becomes a boss won't last long. Woman speaker didn't last long just stayed a little whilt with the people and we don't have much story of her."
Perhaps the point is that Woman speaker, though a "chief," wasn't able to cope with First Man who knew Witchery? Pg. 244-appendix.

Navaho Witchcraft; 1944, Clyde Kluckhohn.

Evil spirits customarily step left foot first.

Body-part directions change sequence details in different chants and for different purposes. The order followed in the prayer for protection and dedication of power in Gray Eyes' version of the Shooting Chant mentions front, back, under, and above the body. The song to Monster Slayer of the War Ceremony mentions the same directions with respect to the body, and adds 'around,' these directions being preceded by emphasis on soles, toe tips, knee tips, palms, finger tips, tip of the body, tips of the shoulders, tip of the face, tip of the eyes, tip of the mouth, top of the head. The purpose of this song is to identify the patient with Monster Slayer as the remains of the emetic are rubbed on his body, The ritualistic parts of the body are the same as in the blessing prayer, but 'tips' are emphasized, the 'tip of the body' instead of 'front and back' because the war garb of Monster Slayer is of flint, symbolized by arrowpoints at various points of his body. Such symbols have value as identification, repetition, exaggeration.

"The prayers are like this: he [warrior] starts with the enemy's head and mentions all the different parts of his body down to the ground and ends his prayer in the ground. This is just the same as burying the man."

Navajo Religion, Vol I; Gladys A. Reichard, 1950

Witch objects ('axidaxacgai) may be distinct from arrows (also used by witches). In the Big Star Chant, they were smooth colored stones about the size of a pinion nut. The chanter gave his assistants who were to collect the objects the following directions: "The four stones you choose must be lying there naturally, black at the east, blue at the south, yellow at the west, and white at the north. Choose all of them before you start to pick up any. Don't start to pick up any if you see, say, two or three, but be sure to locate four, then pick them up in proper order" (cp. Kluckhohn 1944, p. 20).

Navajo Religion, Vol II; Gladys A. Reichard, 1950

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